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MGT603 - Strategic Management - Lecture Handout 25

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THE STRATEGIC POSITION AND ACTION EVALUATION (SPACE) MATRIX

Learning objective

After understanding this chapter you are able to understand SPACE matrix and also understand how to prepare the space matrix of any organization and how it is helpful for strategic formulation framework

The Strategic Position and Action Evaluation (SPACE) Matrix

The Strategic Position and Action Evaluation (SPACE) Matrix is another important Stage 2 matching tool of formulation framework. It explains that what is our strategic position and what possible action can be taken. It is not closed matrix. It is prepared on graph. This follow counter clock wise direction. It contains four-quadrant named aggressive, conservative, defensive, or competitive strategies. The axes of the SPACE Matrix represent two internal dimensions financial strength [FS] and competitive advantage [CA]) and two external dimensions (environmental stability [ES] and industry strength [IS]). These four factors are the most important determinants of an organization's overall strategic position.

overall strategic position.

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MGT604 - Management of Financial Institutions - Lecture Handout 44

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Related Content: MGT604 - VU Lectures, Handouts, PPT Slides, Assignments, Quizzes, Papers & Books of Management of Financial Institutions

Classic Financial Scandals

"Bankers who hire money hungry geniuses should not always express surprise and amazement when some of them turn around with brilliant, creative, and illegal means of making money." “The quotation is from a speech by the financial thriller writer on the Psychology of Risk, Speculation and Fraud, at a conference on EMU in Amsterdam. Barings Bank collapsed when one of the Singapore based employees of London's Barings Bank, Nick Leeson, lost £827 million (US$1.4 billion) - primarily on futures contract speculation. Leeson's actions led the oldest merchant bank to default on its debts. The bank's collapse is considered a pivotal turning point in the history of banking and has become a textbook example of accounting fraud.

• Internal auditing

The way that Barings Bank's activities in Singapore were organized between 1992 and 1995 enabled Leeson to operate effectively without supervision from Barings Bank's head office in London. Leeson acted both as head of settlement operations (charged with ensuring accurate accounting) and as floor manager for Barings' trading on Singapore International Monetary Exchange (SIMEX). Normally the positions would have been held by two employees. This concentration of functions placed Leeson in the position of reporting to an office inside the bank which he himself held. Several observers, including Leeson, placed much of the blame on the bank's own deficient internal auditing and risk management practices.

• Corruption

Because of the absence of oversight, Leeson was able to make seemingly small gambles in the futures market at Barings Futures Singapores (BFS) and cover for his shortfalls by reporting losses as gains to Barings in London. Specifically, Leeson altered the branch's error account, subsequently known by its account number 88888 as the "five-eight account," to prevent the London office from receiving the standard daily reports on trading, price, and
status. Leeson claims the losses started when one of his colleagues bought contracts when she should have sold them. By December 1994 Leeson had cost Barings £200 million but he reported to British tax authorities a £102 million profit. If the company had uncovered his true financial dealings then, collapse might have been avoided as Barings had capital of £350 million

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