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CS605 - Software Engineering II - Lecture Handout 40

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Forward Engineering

At the end forward engineering is carried out. It means incorporating the new business processes and rules in the system. Forward engineering requires application of SE principles, methods, and concepts to re-create an existing application. In most cases forward engineering does not simply create a modern equivalent of an older program, rather new user and technology requirements are integrated into the reengineering effort.

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MGT520 - International Business - Lecture Handout 45

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Learning Objectives:

  • Export & Import
  • Strategies for import and export
  • Status of Pakistan in Exports and Imports
  • FDI and Pakistan
  • International Business and Pakistan

Export Assistance, Pakistan:

  1. Export Promotion Bureau
  2. State bank of Pakistan as export refinance.
  3. Chambers of Commerce and industries as facilitators.
  4. Government as announcing special incentive to exporters like rebates etc.

Export Assistance, International:

  1. Exporters in the US can draw upon two types of government-backed assistance to help finance their exports; the Export-Import bank and export credit insurance provided by the FCIA.
  2. The Export-Import Bank is an independent agency of the US government whose mission is to provide aid in financing and facilitate exports and imports and the exchange of commodities between the US and other countries.
  3. In the US, the Foreign Credit Insurance Association (FCIA) provides export credit insurance. The FCIA provides insurance policies protecting US exporters against the risk of nonpayment by foreign debtors as a result of commercial and political risks.

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