CS601 - Data Communication - Lecture Handout 22

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Other Interface Standards

  • Both Data Rate and Cable LENGTH are restricted by EIA 232
  • Data rate to 20 Kbps and Cable length to 50 feet
  • To meet need of users requiring more speed or distance , the EIA and ITU-T has introduces additional standards: EIA 49, EIA 530 and X.21

EIA 449

  • Mechanical specifications of EIA 448 define a combination of two connectors , on with 37 pins ( DB 37) and one with 9 pins (DB 9) for a combined 46 pins
  • The functional specifications of EIA 449 give the DB 37 pins properties similar to those of the DB 25.
  • The major functional difference b/w 25 and 37 pin connectors is that all functions relating to the secondary channel have been removed from DB 37
  • Because the secondary channel is seldom used, EIA 449 separates those functions out and puts them in the second, 9 pin connector (DB9)
  • In this way, a second channel is available to systems that need it

EIA 449 (PINS)

  • To maintain compatibility with EIA 232, EIA 449 defines two categories of pins to be used in exchanging data, control, and timing information
    • Category 1 pins
    • Category 2 pns
    • Category 1 and 2 pins
      Category 1 includes those pins whose functions are compatible with EIA 232 Category 2 pins are those that have no equivalent in EIA 232 or have been redefined DB9 connector here is different from the one that is previously discussed

Electrical Specifications RS423, RS 422

EIA 449 uses two standards to define its electrical specifications:

  • RS-423: Unbalanced Mode
  • RS-422: Balanced Mode
  • RS 423 Unbalanced Mode
    • Unbalanced Circuit Specification
    • Unbalanced means that it defines only one line for propagating a signal
    • All signals in this standard use a common return or a ground to complete the circuit

Electrical Specifications RS423, RS 422

  • In unbalanced mode, EIA 449 calls for the use of only the first pin of each pair of category 1 pins and all category 2 pins

RS 422 Balanced Mode

  • Balanced circuit specification
  • Defines two lines for the propagation of each signal
  • Signal again uses a common return

RS 422 Balanced Mode

  • EIA utilizes all pairs of pins in category 1 but does not use the category 2 pins
  • The ration of data rate to distance is much higher in this case than EIA 232
  • In balanced mode two lines carry same signal which are not identical to each other
  • Signal on one line is the complement of the other

Canceling of Noise in the Balanced Mode

When plotted, complement of the signal looks like the mirror image of the signal

Canceling of Noise in the Balanced Mode

EIA 530

  • EIA 449 provides much better functionality than EIA 232
  • However it requires a DB 37 connector that industry has been reluctant to use because of the widespread use of DB 25
  • To encourage acceptance of EIA 449, EIA developed a version of EIA-449 that uses DB 25 pins
  • Pin functions of EIA 530 are essentially those of EIA 449 CATEGORY 1 pins plus three pins from category 2
  • EIA 530 does not support a secondary circuit


  • Eliminates most of control pins of EIA standards
    • Control signals are encoded to control characters
    • Send control characters within the data line
    • More control information for digital telephony
  • For digital communication between devices over a network, rather than just between DTE and DCE
  • DB-15, Work with balanced circuits at 64Kbps


  • Most familiar type of a DCE
  • We require modem to connect to the internet
  • MODEM is a composite word for modulator and Demodulator
  • Modulator converts a digital signal into an analog signal using ASK, FSK, PSK or QAM
  • A demodulator converts an analog signal into a digital signal
  • While a demodulator resembles an analog-to-digital converter, it is not infact a converter of any kind
  • It does not sample the signal to create a digital signal
  • It just reverses the process of modulation that is it performs demodulation


  • Shows the relationship of a modulator with a demodulator
  • Two PCs at the end are DTEs, and the modems are the DCEs
  • DTE creates a digital signal and relays it to the Modem via an interface via an interface
  • Modulated signal is received by the demodulation function of the second modem
  • This modem takes this ASK, FSK, PSK or QAM signal and decodes it into whatever format its computer can accept
  • It then relays the digital signal to the computer via an interface
  • Each DCE must be compatible with both its own DTE and the other DCE

Transmission Rate

  • Modems are often described as high speed or low speed to indicate how many bits per second a specific device is capable of transmitting or receiving
  • Limitations on the transmission rate of the Modem


  • Data rate of a link depends upon the type of encoding uses and the bandwidth of the medium
  • The medium bandwidth is related to the inherent limitation of the physical property of the medium
  • Every line has a range of frequencies it can pass
  • If the frequency of a signal is too ow, it cannot overcome the capacitance of the line
  • If frequency is too high, it can be impeded by the inductance of the line
  • So every line has an upper limit and a lower limit on frequencies of the signals
  • This limited range is called Bandwidth

Telephone Line Bandwidth

Telephone Line Bandwidth

  • Traditional telephone lines can carry fre’s b/w 300 Hz and 3300 Hz giving them a BW of 3000Hz
  • All of this range is used for transmitting voice where a great deal of interference and distortion can be accepted w/o any loss of intelligibility
  • Data signal require a high degree of accuracy , so edges of this range are not used for data comm
  • Effective BW of telephone line used for data transmission is 2400 Hz covering a range from 600 Hz to 3000Hz

Modem Speed

Each type of Analog conversion manipulates signal differently:

  • ASK manipulated Amplitude
  • FSK manipulates Frequency
  • PSK manipulates Phase
  • QAM manipulate both phase and amplitude
  • Modem Speed-ASK


  • BW required for ASK is equal to the baud rate of the signal
  • Assuming that entire link is being used by one signal, as in Simplex or Half Duplex, the maximum baud rate for ASK modulation is equal to the entire BW of the transmission medium

Modem Speed-ASK

  • Because the effective BW of a telephone line IS 2400 Hz, the maximum baud rate is also 2400
  • Baud rate and bit rate are equal for ASK, so maximum bit rate is also 2400 bps

Modem Speed-ASK (Full Duplex)

Modem Speed-ASK (Full Duplex)

  • For full duplex TX, only half of the total bandwidth cab be used in either directions
  • Therefore the maximum speed for ASK in full duplex mode is 1200 bps
  • Noise problem makes it impractical for use in Modems

Modem Speed-FSK

  • BW required for FSK is equal to the baud rate of the signal plus the frequency shift
  • So maximum baud rate becomes equal to the BW transmission medium minus the frequency shift

Modem Speed-FSK

  • Maximum Baud rate is therefore 2400 minus the frequency shift
  • And bit rate is also 2400 minus frequency shift
  • In full duplex mode it is equal to 1200 minus the frequency shift

Modem Speed-PSK & QAM

  • Minimum BW for PSK or QAM is the same as for ASK but the bit rate can be greater depending upon the number of bits that can be represented by each signal unit

Modem Speed-PSK & QAM on two wire Twisted pair Telephone line

Modem Speed-PSK & QAM


  • EIA-449
  • EIA-530
  • X.21
  • Modems

Reading Sections

  • Section 6.4, 6.5, “Data Communications and Networking” 4th Edition by Behrouz A. Forouzan