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MGT101 - Financial Accounting - I - Lecture Handout 24

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DEBTORS, CREDITORS, ACCRUALS AND PROVISION FOR BAD DEBTS

Creditors

Creditors are the third persons/parties, who owe money from the business. These are payables of the business against purchase of goods for resale purposes. It is liability of the business and is shown in balance sheet under the heading of ‘current liabilities’.

While studying ‘Accounting for Stocks’, we studied about the accounting for Creditors and studied following ransactions:

Purchase of Goods on credit
Debit: Stocks Account
Credit: Creditors Account

Goods Returned
Debit: Creditors Account
Credit: Stocks Account

At the time of Payment
Debit: Creditors Account
Credit: Cash / Bank Account

Discount Received

At times, we receive discounts from our creditors. This discount is either treated as income of the business or as a reduction in the cost of stock.
Debit: Creditors
Credit: Discount Received OR Stock

Accrued Expenses

When an expense or other payable is accrued, it also creates a current liability but it is not recorded as Creditors. It is shown separately as accrued expenses or expenses payable. The recording of these is as follows:

At the time of recording Accrual
Debit: Relevant Expense Account
Credit: Accrued Expenses / Expenses Payable
In case of any subsequent reduction in the expense
Debit: Accrued Expenses / Expenses Payable
Credit: Relevant Expense Account
At the time of making payment
Debit: Accrued Expenses / Expenses Payable
Credit: Cash / Bank

Difference Between Accrual & Provision

Both these terms are used to record an expense but with a minor difference:

  • Accrual is recorded, when exact amount of expense is known at the time of recording. For example, when salaries are accrued at the end of month, a definite amount is known. It is, therefore, treated as Accrual.
  • Provision is made, when it is known that an expense will arise but the exact amount is not known. For example, at the end of the month, when we record the expense of utilities, the exact amount is not known. Therefore, a provision for these expenses is made.

Accounting Treatment of Provision

Recording of Provisions is done just like Accruals.

At the time of recording Provision:
Debit: Relevant Expense Account
Credit: Provisions

At the time when exact amount is known, the provision is adjusted by Debiting or Crediting, to bring it to the exact amount of expense. Other effect is given to the account that was originally debited in above transaction.

At the time of making payment
Debit: Provisions
Credit: Cash / Bank

Creditors, Accruals and provisions are shown under current liabilities in the balance sheet.

Debtors

Debtors are the third persons/parties, from whom business owes money. These are receivables of the business against sale of goods. It is an asset of the business and is shown in the balance sheet under the heading of ‘current assets’.

Accounting Treatment

We studied at the time of sale of Goods that Cost of goods sold is debited and Finished Goods Stock is credited.

The other entry that is booked is as follows:
Debit: Cash / Bank / Debtors
Credit: Sales / Revenue
At the time of receipt
Debit: Cash / Bank
Credit: Debtors

When goods sold to debtors are returned following entries are booked:
Debit: Sales
Credit: Debtors
(With the sale value of goods returned)
Debit: Finished Goods Stock
Credit: Cost of Goods Sold
(With the cost of goods returned)
This essentially reverses the effect of transactions recorded at the time of sale of goods

Bad Debts

When goods are sold on credit the business takes the risk that some of the customers may never pay for the goods sold to them. When a debtor does not pay the amount due to him, it is said to be a bad debt. This is a loss sustained as a result of a risk taken in the normal course of business. It is charged to Profit and Loss Account in the period in which it is sustained.

Recording of Bad Debts

In case of sales return, there were two entries to record, one to record a reduction of debtors and the other to record receipt of stock. In case of bad debts, debtors are reduced but no stock is returned.

Therefore, only one entry is passed, whereby Debtors are reduced and an expense is created titled “Bad Debts”
Debit: Bad Debts
Credit: Debtors a/c

At the time of preparing financial statements we have following objectives:

  • To charge all the expenses for the period against the income.
  • To show the figures in the balance sheet that present a true picture of financial position of the business as at that date.

Therefore, if it becomes obvious that some of the debtors may not pay the amount due to them, we need to charge that receivable to profit and loss. Like we said earlier, an accrual or expense is recorded when the definite amount is known, otherwise, a provision is made. Same is the case with debtors. When there is an indication that some debtors may not pay, a provision is created.

Recording of Provision

Debit: Provision for Bad Debts (P&L)
Credit: Provision for Bad Debts
The debit account is charged against current years profit and the credit head is shown as a deduction from debtors in the balance sheet.

Presentation of Provision for Bad Debts

Extract of P & L to show the Provision

Profit and Loss Account for the year ended June 30, 20—

Gross Profit

xxxxx
Less: Admin Expenses
Provision for bad debts
(5,000)

Extract of Balance Sheet to show the Provision

Current Assets

Debtors

100,000
Provision for Bad Debts (5,000)
95,000

Bad Debts & Provision For Bad Debts

When the bad debt for which provision is already made is confirmed, following entry is passed:

Debit: Provision for Bad Debts
Credit: Debtors

As expense has already been charged, therefore, no effect is given to P&L at this point.

Reducing the provision

Debit: Provision for Bad Debts (Balance Sheet)
Credit: Provision for Bad Debts (P&L)
Increasing the provision

Debit: Provision for Bad Debts (P&L)
Credit: Provision for Bad Debts

Example # 1

Following information is available for Abbas Ltd. for the year ended June 30, 2002.
Bad Debts During the year
November

100
January
780
April
350
At the year end total debtors amounted to Rs. 35,000 out which Rs. 1,800 is considered to be bad.
Show the bad relevant accounts and extracts from P&L and Balance Sheet.

Solution

Abbas Ltd. Bad Debts Account Account Code --
Date
2002
Vr.
#
Narration / Particulars Ledger
Code
DR.
Amount
CR.
Amount
Balance
Dr/(Cr)
Nov   Bad Debts   100   100
Jan   Bad Debts   780   880
Apr   Bad Debts   350   1,230

 

Abbas Ltd. Provision for Bad Debts Account (B/S) Account Code --
Date
2002
Vr.
#
Narration / Particulars Ledger
Code
DR.
Amount
CR.
Amount
Balance
Dr/(Cr)
June   Provision for Bad Debts     1,800 (1,800)

 

Abbas Ltd. Provision for Bad Debts Account (P&L) Account Code --
Date
2002
Vr.
#
Narration / Particulars Ledger
Code
DR.
Amount
CR.
Amount
Balance
Dr/(Cr)
Jun   Provision for Bad Debts   1,800   1,800

Presentation in Profit & Loss Account

Abbas Ltd.
Profit and Loss Account
For the year ended June 30, 2002.

Gross Profit

xxxxx
Less: Admin Expenses
Bad Debts
(1,230)
Provision for bad debts
(1,800)

Presentation in Balance Sheet

Abbas Ltd.
Balance Sheet
As On June 30, 2002

Current Assets

Debtors 35,000  
Provision for Bad Debts (1,800) 33,200

Example # 2

A business creates a provision for bad debts @ 5% of its debtors on balance sheet date.

  • On July 01, 2001 the balance of Provision was 3,400.
  • During the year debts written off amounted to Rs. 5,000.
  • On June 30, 2002, debtors totaled Rs. 75,000.
  • Show Bad debts Account and provision for bad debts account.

Solution

The required closing balance of Provision is Rs. 3,750 (75000 x 5%). Therefore a further provision of Rs. 350 (3,750 – 3,400) will have to be created.

Bad Debts Account Account Code --
Date
2002
Vr.
#
Narration / Particulars Ledger
Code
DR.
Amount
CR.
Amount
Balance
Dr/(Cr)
June
30
  Bad Debts   5,000   5,000

 

Provision for Bad Debts Account (B/S) Account Code --
Date
2002
Vr.
#
Narration / Particulars Ledger
Code
DR.
Amount
CR.
Amount
Balance
Dr/(Cr)
July01,
2001
  O/B     3,400 (3,400)
June30,
2002
  Provision for bad
debts
    350 (3,750)

 

Provision for Bad Debts Account (P&L) Account Code --
Date
2002
Vr.
#
Narration / Particulars Ledger
Code
DR.
Amount
CR.
Amount
Balance
Dr/(Cr)
June30   Provision for Bad
Debts
  350   350

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