MGT101 - Financial Accounting - I - Lecture Handout 23

User Rating:  / 0
PoorBest 

BANK RECONCILIATION STATEMENTS (Contd.)

In the last lecture, we studied what is Bank Statement and how does it differ from our Bank Book. We told you that money lying in our bank account is our asset. Therefore, it usually has a DEBIT BALANCE. Also, when we deposit cash in our Bank, we DEBIT the Bank Book / Bank Account. Whereas, for Bank, the money lying in our Bank Account is a liability that bank has to return to us. Therefore, in Bank Statement which is a ledger account for bank normally has a CREDIT BALANCE. When we deposit cash in our bank account the liability of the bank to pay us increases. Therefore, our account in the Books of Bank is CREDITED. Bank Statement is, therefore, a MIRROR IMAGE of our bank book.

Then, we studied about the reasons that create differences between our bank book and bank statement.
Such as:

  • Bank Charges debited to our bank account by the bank without our knowledge
  • Profit credited to our bank account
  • Payments made on our behalf by the bank, through our standing instructions, that we did not record in our books
  • Money paid in our account by our customers, dealers, agents, etc. without our knowledge
  • Un-presented cheques
  • Un-cleared cheques

The last two reasons arise because we record payments or receipts in our books when we receive / issue a cheque. But the bank records the transaction in our account at the time of actual receipts or payments. These differences are included in the bank reconciliation statement.

The first four items are either adjusted in the bank book or shown in the reconciliation statement, depending upon whether we have closed our books for the period or not. If we have closed our books of accounts, these differences will be presented in the bank reconciliation statement. If our books of accounts are not closed as yet, we will adjust our bank book and give effect of all these adjustments in the bank book.

The main idea behind bank reconciliation is that we adjust our bank book for the transactions, that remain untraced, either through a Voucher (charges, profit, standing instruction) or through a Reconciliation Statement (un-presented, un-credited cheques).

Example # 1

From the following particulars, prepare Bank reconciliation statement of Mr. Naveed as on June 30, 2002.

  • Balance as per bank book Dr.
    32,000
  • Cheques deposited but not yet collected by bank
    20,200
  • Cheques issued but not yet paid by bank
    13,000
  • Dividend credited by bank on June 30, but the intimation was received later
    2,000
  • Interest credited by bank
    250
  • Bank charges debited by bank
    50

It is assumed that books of accounts are not closed yet.

Solution

As books of accounts are not closed, we will find out the adjusted balance first:

Balance as per bank book Dr. 32,000
Add/Debit Dividend credited by bank Dr. 2,000
Add/Debit Interest credited by bank Dr. 250
Less/Credit Bank charges Cr. (50)
Adjusted balance as per bank book Dr. 34,200

These adjustments in the ledger account of bank will look like as follows:

Mr. Naveed Bank Book (Bank Account Number) Account Code --
Date
20--
Vr.
#
Chq.
No.
Narration /
Particulars
Ledger
Code
Receipt
Amount
Payment
Amount
Balance
Dr/(Cr)
Jun30     Balance B/f   32,000   32,000
Jun30     Dividend received   2,000   34,000
Jun30     Interest received   250   34,250
Jun30     Bank charges     50 34,200

Bank Reconciliation Statement

Balance as per bank book Dr. 34,200
Add: Un-presented cheques Dr. 13,000
Less: Un-credited cheques (Cr.) (20,200)
Balance as per bank statement Cr. 27,000

In this example, books of accounts are not closed, all other transactions except un-presented cheques and un-credited cheques, will be recorded in the bank book by passing journal entries and adjusted balance of bank book will be presented in the bank reconciliation statement.

To this point, we have considered a favourable balance i.e. Debit in bank book and Credit in bank statement. But there is a possibility that we may have an unfavourable balance.

This can happen if we have taken a loan from our bank.We can also call it an overdraft i.e. we have drawn more money from our bank than we had deposited in it. The reconciliation procedure would be the same as before.

The solution of above example will show the following picture:

Solution

As books of accounts are not closed, we will find out the adjusted balance first:

Balance as per bank book Cr. (32,000)
Add/Debit Dividend credited by bank Dr. 2,000
Add/Debit Interest credited by bank Dr. 250
Less/Credit Bank charges Cr. (50)
Adjusted balance as per bank book Dr. (34,200)

These adjustments in the ledger account of bank will look like as follows:

Mr. Naveed Bank Book (Bank Account Number) Account Code --
Date
20--
Vr.
#
Chq.
No.
Narration /
Particulars
Ledger
Code
Receipt
Amount
Payment
Amount
Balance
Dr/(Cr)
Jun30     Balance B/f     32,000 32,000
Jun30     Dividend received   2,000   34,000
Jun30     Interest received   250   34,250
Jun30     Bank charges     50 34,200

Bank Reconciliation Statement

Balance as per bank book Cr. (34,200)
Add: Un-presented cheques Dr. 13,000
Less: Un-credited cheques Cr. (20,200)
Balance as per bank statement Dr.. (41,400)

In this case the balance of bank statement is debit because this amount is receivable by bank; it is an asset of the bank. On the other hand, this balance is a credit balance in bank book, it is payable to bank by the business. So, it is a liability of the business.

Balance of bank statement in the first case does not match with the balance calculated above. The reason being, the balance in the first solution was debit, i-e. Balance was our asset and drawing more money from bank reduced our asset. On the other hand, balance in this case is credit, i-e. We have already drawn more than what we have deposited in the bank. So, it is our liability. This balance is shown with negative sign. So, when we add/debit any amount, it will reduce our liability and when we less/credit any amount from bank, it will enhance our liability. This difference in treatment will result in a different balance of bank statement.

Example # 2

From the following data ascertain the balance as per bank statement of Rashid & Co on March 31, 20--

  • Balance as per bank book Rs. 79,000
  • Cheques issued but not presented for payment Rs. 24,000.
  • Cheques deposited but not cleared Rs. 35,000
  • Interest on deposit was credited by bank but not debited in bank book Rs. 1,000.
  • A customer paid into bank directly Rs. 13,000 but the same was not recorded in bank book.
  • Other receipts in bank that were not recorded in bank book Rs. 20,000.

Solution

In such an example, where bank reconciliation statement is not required the answer will show only what is required i.e. the balance that should appear in Bank Statement. Whereas, the reconciliation statement is prepared in Working / Rough Work

Let’s see the solution now:

Rashid & Co.
Balance as per Bank Statement
As on March 21, 20________
Working
Balance as per Bank Book 79,000
Add Un presented cheques 24,000
Less Un credited cheques (35,000)
Add Interest received 1,000
Add amount deposited by customer 13,000
Add other receipts in bank 20,000
Balance as per bank statement 102,000

As this is a working, therefore, we have put all the items in the statement. If the question had required the adjusted bank book balance, then, we would have adjusted items 3, 4 and 5 first and then prepared the reconciliation statement.
Similarly, the question could have given us the balance as per bank statement and required us to calculate bank book balance.
Let’s see how we will work out the balance of bank book:

Rashid & Co.
Balance as per Bank Statement
As on March 21, 20________
Balance as per Bank Statement 102,000
Less Un presented cheques (24,000)
Add Un credited cheques 35,000
Less Interest received (1,000)
Less amount deposited by customer (13,000)
Less other receipts in bank (20,000)
Balance as per bank book 79,000

Rectification of Error

In the beginning of this lecture, we also said that one reason for a difference between balance of bank book and bank statement could be a mistake made by us in recording transactions. Such differences are removed by making an adjusting entry through Journal Voucher, which is also called rectification of error.

Any other error when rectified / corrected would also be termed as Rectification of Error.

For Example, assume that we received cash Rs. 50,000 from a debtor and instead of Debiting the Cash Book / Cash Account, we debited the Bank Book, whereas the credit was given to the correct account. Now we have overstated bank book by Rs. 50,000 and understated the cash book by the same amount. To correct this, we will have to reduce credit bank and increase debit cash by Rs. 50,000. So the entry will be:

Debit Cash Account

50,000
Credit Bank Account
50,000

After posting this transaction, our bank book will be reconciled if all other items have been taken into account.

We can prepare a general procedure for rectification of errors.

Step 1 Note down the correct entry Debit: Cash

50,000
Credit: Creditors
50,000

Step 2 Note down the incorrect entry Debit: Bank

50,000
Credit: Creditors
50,000

Step 3 See that Credit effect is correct. In case of Debit, effect has been given to Bank, instead of cash. Therefore, we will give the due effect to Cash by debiting it and Remove the incorrect effect from bank by crediting it. Debit: Cash Account

50,000
Credit: Bank Account
50,000

This is one type of error where entry has been posted in incorrect account but with the correct amount.

Other errors that may occur while recording are as follows:

  • A transaction is completely omitted. For example, in our above examples, we had not recorded the bank charges or the payment made by our customers directly in our bank.
  • This type of errors is simple to rectify. The entry that was required at the time when event is recorded and comes to our knowledge.
  • The entry is recorded in correct account but with incorrect amount. For example, Electricity bill of Rs. 1,000 paid in cash is recorded as Rs. 100 in correct head. In this case, rectification will be done by following entry:

Debit Electricity

900
Credit Cash
900

(This will increase the expense to Rs. 1,000 and decrease the cash to the correct amount.)

  • On the other hand, if the entry was recorded at 10,000. Then a reversal entry will be posted to correct the effect.
    Debit: Cash
    9,000
    Credit: Electricity
    9,000
  • Another type of error could be Wrong Head of Account with wrong amount. For example, Purchase of vehicle worth Rs. 500,000 through cheque is recorded as vehicle repair Rs. 50,000.

The Correct Entry would have been:
Debit: Vehicle

500,000
Credit: Bank
500,000

The wrong entry that we posted is:
Debit: Vehicle repair

50,000
Credit: Bank
50,000

Rectification will be as follows:
Debit: Vehicle

500,000
Credit: Bank
450,000
Credit: Vehicle Repair
50,000

We can, therefore, use this method to rectify any mistake.

Related Content: MGT101 - VU Lectures, Handouts, PPT Slides, Assignments, Quizzes, Papers & Books of Financial Accounting